Questions on Foreclosure... from the lenders point of view
Have you ever wondered what your lender's point of view is on a Deed-in-lieu or other foreclosure related issues? I have found a website that lists what issues the lender has to consider when thinking of what steps to take when a borrower gets behind. These are from that website and they relate directly to California Law (Other States may be similar):
"Should I forgo a foreclosure and take a deed in lieu?
Before you can even consider an alternative, the borrower must be willing to offer a deed in lieu. There are advantages to taking a deed in lieu. It could save you time and money. You should order a preliminary title report and review it carefully to determine if there are any junior liens that would survive the deed in lieu. If you are satisfied with the title report, you would take the deed in lieu subject to a title insurance policy being issued in your favor as reflected in the preliminary report. This procedure would take a lot less time than the approximate four months of foreclosure. The main disadvantages to taking a deed in lieu of foreclosure are the junior liens will not be extinguished and that the borrower may later have a change of heart and seek to have the courts set the deed in lieu aside.
Do I need the borrower's permission to foreclose?
No. You already have their permission; they gave it when they signed the note and deed of trust.
What documents do I need to foreclose?
You will need to provide the trustee with the note and deed of trust, any modification or extension agreements, additional notes and any assignments. If an original document is lost, it may be necessary to provide a lost instrument bond. Consult with your trustee. You also need to provide the trustee with certain essential information, such as...the unpaid balance of the note, the date to which the interest is paid, the reason for the default(such as failure to make the payment which became due on a certain date), information regarding any advances you have made, the last known residence or business address of the last known owner, and the property address. If you are not using the original trustee, a substitution of trustee must be signed and notarized by the beneficiary.
Why is an accurate "last known address" of the last known owner vital?
Failure to send notice to an accurate business or residence address of the last known owners may invalidate the foreclosure. Search all your records completely and carefully. If the borrower has more than one loan with your firm, review all sets of records. If the borrowers are married and you receive word from one of them that (s)he is no longer residing at the property address and you are provided with a new address, be sure to communicate that information to the trustee as soon as possible.
How long does it take to foreclose?
If there are no delays, a foreclosure will be completed in about four months. After the recording of the NOD there is a mandatory three-month waiting period before the trustee can publish the notice of trustee's sale. Generally the sale will take place four weeks after the pre-publication period has ended. The date of the sale is influenced by the county where the property is located, the regular schedule of sales for that county and by the frequency of publication of the newspaper in which the trustee is required to publish. The trustee must also consider the newspaper deadlines for advertising and the time-necessary for preparation of the notice of sale and its delivery to the newspaper. The California Civil Code also requires that the notice of sale be posted on the property and a public place at least 20 days prior to the sale; adequate time must be allowed for this to be completed. If the IRS has recorded a federal tax lien at least 30 days before the sale, they require notification at least 25 days before the sale. If the loan is insured by the Veterans Administration, the sale date must be set to allow time enough for them to provide bid instructions.
Who pays the foreclosure fee and costs?
If the borrower brings the loan current or pays it off, the borrower is responsible to the lender for the foreclosure fee and costs. Since the lender is obligated to pay the trustee, the lender should be sure to not overlook these foreclosure expenses. If the property is sold to an outside bidder at the foreclosure auction, the foreclosure expenses will be paid by the bidder. Only when the lender is the successful bidder at the sale will the lender not be able to look to someone else to recover the trustee's fee and costs. Hopefully, when the property is resold, the lender can expect to recover their foreclosure expenses.
What is a Declaration of Default?
This document contains the official written instruction from the beneficiary to the trustee. Most deeds of trust require the beneficiary to furnish the trustee with a Declaration of Default. It identifies the deed of trust to be foreclosed, states the breach, and directs the trustee to sell the property to satisfy the indebtedness.
What is the fastest way to record the NOD?
You may send the trustee a pre-signed substitution along with the other documents, or the trustee can prepare one and return it to you for your signature. If you are to be regularly using a trustee, you might consider giving the trustee a limited power of attorney authorizing them to sign the substitution of trustee and the notice of default. Sending pre-signed substitutions or giving a limited power of attorney reduces the time between your decision to foreclose and the actual recording of the notice of default to as little as 24 to 48 hours.
What are the most common delays to the foreclosure process?
* The most common delay comes from the filing of bankruptcy.
* A temporary restraining order (TRO) is used to preserve the status quo pending a court hearing for a preliminary injunction.
* A preliminary injunction is used to preserve the status quo pending a final determination of the action on the merits.
* The beneficiary or his servicer doesn't send the trustee the most current assignment. The trustee prepares the NOD and the substitution with the wrong beneficiary shown. Several days after the documents are recorded the title company discovers the error. The trustee now must rescind the original NOD and re-record new documents. If there is uncertainty regarding the current beneficiary, ask the trustee handling the foreclosure to check with the title company for current information.
* The recording information on the deed of trust was incorrect. A copy of the deed of trust has the recording information written incorrectly or the original deed of trust was re-recorded later.
* The paid-to-date was incorrect.
* The unpaid balance was incorrect.
* The last known address was incorrect or incomplete.
* Money (partial payment) is accidentally accepted from the borrower.
* Instructions are misunderstood. The beneficiary instructs the trustee to cancel the sale rather than postpone, or postpone rather than sell.
* The NOD is re-recorded (start-over) because of failure to notify someone.
* Correspondence requiring response is accidentally filed rather than handled.
* Opening bid information given to the trustee too late to order a date down of the trustee's sale guarantee.
How does bankruptcy of the borrower affect the foreclosure?
The filing of a petition of bankruptcy by the borrower, by a lessee (tenant) who has a recorded lease, or by the beneficiary of a junior deed of trust, immediately stops the foreclosure, with or without notice. The trustee may not proceed in any way; he may, however, postpone an already scheduled and noticed sale. If the trustee conducts a sale after a bankruptcy is filed, but without any knowledge of it, the sale is void or voidable depending on circumstances. See section 2924j. Before the trustee can continue the foreclosure, the lender must obtain relief from the bankruptcy court. You should seek legal advice immediately from an attorney who specializes in bankruptcy. Relief must terminate the stay against the property of the debtor and the property of the estate in bankruptcy. Relief as to the debtor is not relief as to the estate. The trustee's sale cannot be held within seven days after the expiration of the stay in bankruptcy unless the court order so provides. See Civil Code section 2924g(d). Attorneys representing lenders in bankruptcy should include as part of their relief orders a statement that a foreclosure sale may occur immediately upon entry of the bankruptcy relief order.
Does the borrower need actual notice to have a valid foreclosure?
No. The nonjudicial foreclosure sections of the California Civil Code were designed to balance the needs of the borrower and lender. The procedure is supposed to be clear and easy to follow so that there is little reason to go into court to argue issues. The notification procedure provides many opportunities for the borrower to receive notice. If they do not make the effort to keep the lender of the trustee informed, they may lose their property without notice. The trustee has no obligation to search for a lost borrower. The borrower can give constructive notice with their current address. See I.E. Assocs., v. Safeco Title Ins. Co. (1985) 39 C3d 281, 216 CR 438.
Am I limited to only three postponements?
The lender or the trustee is limited to three discretionary postponements, after which it is necessary to republish the Notice of Sale. The lender may agree with the borrower to any number of postponements; it is best to get this agreement in writing and signed by the borrower. The sale can be postponed any number of times "by operation of law" or one time only for bankruptcy determination. See section 2924g(c). A Notice of Sale is generally considered stale after one year. It would then be best to re-notice the trustee's sale.
Are the trustee's sales really held on the steps of the county courthouse?
Yes. Most trustees use the same place to conduct their sales. The most common spot is the front entrance to the county courthouse, city hall, or hall or records. The only requirement by law is that it be conducted in a public place.
Is there a redemption period after the sale?
In a non-judicial sale there is no redemption period for the previous owner or junior lien holders. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has a 120-day right of redemption, if it had a properly recorded notice of a federal tax lien subsequent to your deed of trust.
Who gets the over bid surplus?
Any monies that exceed the foreclosing lender's total indebtedness, including advances and expenses, will go to junior lien holders of record in the order of priority, and finally to the previous owner of record. If the trustee has doubts about where the monies should be paid, they should commence an action for interpleader to avoid potential liability.
What happens if I feel sorry for the sold out borrower and deed the property back to them?
If your intent is to replace your original deed of trust with a new one having the same priority...BEWARE. The extinguished junior liens will revive; your new deed of trust will be subordinate. See Jensen v. Duke (1925) 71 Cal. App. 210
When is the trustee's sale complete?
The sale is final upon the auctioneer saying "sold" and the sale is deemed perfected as of 8am on the day of sale provided the Trustee's Deed Upon Sale is recorded within 15 days of the actual sale date."
I don't know how you feel but this has answered a lot of questions I had about foreclosure proceedings. Please contact us if you have any questions.
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